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Students! Know Your Rights: End Notes

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End Notes

Utah Code § 53A-12-101

2 Utah Code § 53A-11-101.5

3 Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982)

4 Equal Education Opportunity Act of 1974, 20 U.S.C. § 1703(f) [requiring that schools must take “appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional programs.”]

5 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.)

6 Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972. (Title 20 U.S.C. Sections 1681-1688)

7 Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969).

8 Bethel School District No. 403 v. Frasier, 478 U.S. 675 (1986).

9 Nixon v. N. Local Sch. Dist. Bd. of Educ., 383 F. Supp. 2d 965 (D. Ohio 2005).

10 Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969).

11 Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973).

12 Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969).

13 Morse v. Fredrick, 127 S. Ct. 2618 (2007)

14 Equal Access Act, 20 U.S.C. § 4071 et seq.

15 Utah Code § 53A-11-1201

16 Bd. of Educ. Of Westside Community School v. Mergens, 496 U.S. 226 (1990).

17 Equal Access Act, 20 U.S.C. §§ 4071 et seq.

18 ibid.

19 For more information on GSAs, see Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network at http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/student/student/index.html.

20 Equal Access Act, 20 U.S.C. §§ 4071 et seq.

21 See, e.g., Boyd County High School Gay Straight Alliance v. Bd. of Educ. of Boyd County, Ky., 258 F. Supp. 2d 667 (E.D. Ky 2003); Colin ex rel. Colin v. Orange Unified School District, 83 F. Supp. 2d 1135 (C.D. Cal. 2000).`

22 Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260, 266 (1988).

23 Id.

24 Id. at 271 (citing Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School Dist., 393 U.S. 503, 509 (1969)).

25 Id. at 273.

26 Id. at 271.

27 Dean v. Utica Community Schools, 345 F. Supp. 2d 799 (E.D. Mich. 2004).

28 Shanley v. Northeast Independent School District, 462 F.2d 960 (5th Cir. 1972).

29 Burch v. Barker, 861 F.2d 1149 (9th Cir. 1988).

30 Shanley v. Northeast Independent School District, 462 F.2d 960, 969 (5th Cir. 1972).

31 Reno v. ACLU, 521 U.S. 844 (1997).

32 Coy v. Bd. of Educ., 205 F. Supp. 2d 791, 800 (N.D. Ohio 2002).

33 O’Brien v. Westlake City Schools of Education, No. 1:98CV 647 (E.D. Ohio 1998)

34 Bd. of Educ. v. Pico, 457 U.S. 853 (U.S. 1982).

35 Id.

36 Id.

37 Latour v. Riverside Beaver Sch. Dist., 2005 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 35919 (D. Pa. 2005).

38 J.S. v. Bethlehem School District, 569 Pa. 638 (Pa. 2002).

39 Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School Dist., 393 U.S. 503 at 508 (U.S. 1969).

40 Blau v. Fort Thomas Pub. Sch. Dist., 401 F.3d 381, 389 (6th Cir. 2005).

41 Guzick v. Drebus, 431 F.2d 594 at 597 (6th Cir. 1970).

42 Utah Code §53A-15-1102

43 Nixon v. N. Local Sch. Dist. Bd. of Educ., 383 F. Supp. 2d 965, 971 (D. Ohio 2005).

44 Barber v. Dearborn Pub. Sch., 286 F. Supp.2d 847, 856 (E.D. Mich. 2003).

45 Blau v. Fort Thomas Pub. Sch. Dist., 401 F.3d 381 (6th Cir. 2005).

46 Stephenson v. Davenport Community Sch. Dist., 110 F.3d 1303 (8th Cir. 1997).

47 Abington School District v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203, 306 (1963)

48 Lanner V. Wimmer, 662 F.2d 1349 (10th Cir. 1981)

49 Utah Adm. Code: Rule 277-610

50 Edwards v. Aguillard, 482 U.S. 578 (1987).

51 Id. at 593.

52 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area Sch. Dist., 400 F. Supp. 2d 707 (M.D. Penn. 2005).

53 See http://dictionary.reference.com/.

54 Elk Grove Unified Sch. Dist. v. Newdow, 542 U.S. 1 (2004).

55 Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962).

56 Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38 (1985).

57 Washegesic v. Bloomingdale Public Schools, 33 F.3d 679 (6th Cir. 1994).

58 Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 (1980).

59 Santa Fe Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Doe, 530 U.S. 290 (2000).

60 Id.

61 Cheema v. Thompson, 67 F.3d 883 (9th Cir. 1995).

62 County of Allegheny v. American Civil Liberties Union, Greater Pittsburgh Chapter, 492 U.S. 573 (1989).

63 Berger v. Rensselaer Cent. Sch. Corp., 982 F.2d 1160 (7th Cir 1993).

64 See Bacon v. Bradley-Bourbonnais High School Dist., 707 F. Supp. 1005 (C.D. Ill. 1989).

65 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325 (1985).

66 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325 at 340 (1985).

67 Black’s Law Dictionary, published by West Publishing Group (1996).

68 Ibid.

69 Doe v. Little Rock Sch. Dist., 380 F.3d 349 (8th Cir. 2004).

70 Zamora v. Pomeroy,639 F.2d 662 (10th Cir. 1981)

71 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325 (1985).

72 In re Dengg, 724 N.E.2d 1255, 1259 (Ct. App. Oh. 1999).\

73 Doe v. Renfrow, 631 F.2d 91, 92-93 (7th Cir. 1980).

74 Vernonia Sch. Dist. 47J v. Acton, 515 U.S. 646, 654-65 (1995).

75 Beard v. Whitmore Lake Sch. Dist., 402 F.3d 598, 605 (6th Cir. 2005).

76 U.S. v. Place, 462 U.S. 696 (1983).

77 Doe v. Renfrow, 451 U.S. 1022. (1981)(cert denied, Brennan dissent).

78 Vernonia Sch. Dist. 47j v. Acton, 515 U.S. 646 (1995).

79 Bd. of Educ. v. Earls, 536 U.S. 822 (2002).

80 Doe v. Little Rock Sch. Dist., 380 F.3d 349 (8th Cir. 2004).

81 People v. Pruitt, 278 Ill. App. 3d 194 (Ill. App. Ct. 1996).

82 Tarter v. Raybuck, 742 F.2d 977 (6th Cir. 1984); Widener v. Frye, 809 F.Supp. 35 (S.D. Ohio 1992).

83 Yarborough v. Alvarado, 541 U.S. 652 (2004).

84 Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966).

85 Fare v. Michael C., 442 U.S. 707 (1979).

86 U.S. Const. Amend. XIV.; Title VI, Civil Rights Act, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d-1. See also Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974).

87 GLSTN, From Teasing to Torment: New National Report on School Bullying, http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/library/record/2001.html (last viewed 7/31/06).

88 Utah Code §§53A-11a-101-302

89 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights, Frequently Asked Questions About Sexual Harassment, http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/qa-sexharass.html (last viewed 8/2/06).

90 Davis v. Monroe County Bd. of Educ., 526 U.S. 629 (1999).

91 Gebser v. Lago Vista Indep. Sch. Dist., 524 U.S. 274 (1998), see also Davis v. Monroe County Bd. of Educ., 526 U.S. 629 (1999) and Williams v. Paint Valley Local Sch. Dist., 400 F.3d 360 (6th Cir. 2005).

92 Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996).

93 GLSTN, From Teasing to Torment: New National Report on School Bullying, http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/library/record/1859.html (last viewed 7/31/06).

94 Flores v. Morgan Hill Unified School District, 324 F.3d 1130 (9th Cir. 2003)

95 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights, Sex Discrimination: Overview of the Law. http://www.ed.gov/policy/rights/guid/ocr/sexoverview.html (last viewed 8/2/06)

96 Fricke v. Lynch, 491 F. Supp. 381 (R.I. 1980).

97 Utah Code § 53A-11-901

98 Utah Code § 53A-11-904

99 Utah Code § 53A-11-905

100 Utah Code § 53A-11-904 (2)(b).

101 Utah Code § 53A-11-904(3).

102 20 U.S.C. §1400 et seq.

103 Honig v. Doe, 484 U.S. 305 (1988).

104 Utah Code § 53A-11-802

105 Utah Code § 53A-3-402.1

106 Utah Code § 53A-13-301 et al.

107 20 USCS § 6301 "No Child Left behind Act"

108 28 USCS § 1782.

109 Title 20, United States Code, Section 7908(a)(3).

110 San Diego Committee Against Registration and the Draft (CARD) v. Governing Board of Grossmont Union High School District, 790 F.2d 1471 (9th Cir. 1986).

111 Title 20, United States Code, Section 7908(a)(1).

112 Title 20, United States Code, Section 1234(c)(a).

113 Cover letter for Policy Guidance – Access to High School Students and Information on Students by Military Recruiters. October 9, 2002. http://www.ed.gov/print/policy/gen/guid/fpco/hottopics/ht-10-09-02a.html (last viewed 8/2/06).